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number
Number data types store numeric values. Number objects are created when you assign a value to them.
For example −
var1 = 1
var2 = 10
You can delete a single object or multiple objects by using the del statement. For example −
del var
del var_a, var_b
Python supports four different numerical types −
int (signed integers)
long (long integers, they can also be represented in octal and hexadecimal)
float (floating point real values)
complex (complex numbers)
int 
long 
float 
complex 
10 
51924361L 
0 
3.14j 
100 
0x19323L 
15.2 
45.j 
786 
0122L 
21.9 
9.322e36j 
80 
0xDEFABCECBDAECBFBAEl 
32.3+e18 
.876j 
490 
535633629843L 
90 
.6545+0J 
0x260 
052318172735L 
3.254E+101 
3e+26J 
0x69 
4721885298529L 
70.2E12 
4.53e7j 
Mathematical Functions
Python includes following functions that perform mathematical calculations
Function 
Returns ( description ) 
abs(x) 
The absolute value of x: the (positive) distance between x and zero. 
ceil(x) 
The ceiling of x: the smallest integer not less than x 
cmp(x, y) 
1 if x < y, 0 if x == y, or 1 if x > y 
exp(x) 
The exponential of x: ex 
fabs(x) 
The absolute value of x. 
floor(x) 
The floor of x: the largest integer not greater than x 
log(x) 
The natural logarithm of x, for x> 0 
log10(x) 
The base10 logarithm of x for x> 0 . 
max(x1, x2,...) 
The largest of its arguments: the value closest to positive infinity 
min(x1, x2,...) 
The smallest of its arguments: the value closest to negative infinity 
modf(x) 
The fractional and integer parts of x in a twoitem tuple. Both parts have the same sign as x. The integer part is returned as a float. 
pow(x, y) 
The value of x**y. 
round(x [,n]) 
x rounded to n digits from the decimal point. Python rounds away from zero as a tiebreaker: round(0.5) is 1.0 and round(0.5) is 1.0. 
sqrt(x) 
The square root of x for x > 0 
Random Number Functions
Random numbers are used for games, simulations, testing, security, and privacy applications. Python includes following functions that are commonly used.
Function 
Description 
choice(seq) 
A random item from a list, tuple, or string. 
randrange ([start,] stop [,step]) 
A randomly selected element from range(start, stop, step) 
random() 
A random float r, such that 0 is less than or equal to r and r is less than 1 
seed([x]) 
Sets the integer starting value used in generating random numbers. Call this function before calling any other random module function. Returns None. 
shuffle(lst) 
Randomizes the items of a list in place. Returns None. 
uniform(x, y) 
A random float r, such that x is less than or equal to r and r is less than y 
Trigonometric Functions
Function 
Description 
acos(x) 
Return the arc cosine of x, in radians. 
asin(x) 
Return the arc sine of x, in radians. 
atan(x) 
Return the arc tangent of x, in radians. 
atan2(y, x) 
Return atan(y / x), in radians. 
cos(x) 
Return the cosine of x radians. 
hypot(x, y) 
Return the Euclidean norm, sqrt(x*x + y*y). 
sin(x) 
Return the sine of x radians. 
tan(x) 
Return the tangent of x radians. 
degrees(x) 
Converts angle x from radians to degrees. 
radians(x) 
Converts angle x from degrees to radians. 
Mathematical Constants
The module also defines two mathematical constants −
Logical Operators
There are following logical operators supported by Python language. Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20 then
Used to reverse the logical state of its operand.
Constants 
Description 
pi 
The mathematical constant pi. 
e 
The mathematical constant e. 

