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operator
Operators are the constructs which can manipulate the value of operands.
Consider the expression 4 + 5 = 9. Here, 4 and 5 are called operands and + is called operator.
Types of Operator
Python language supports the following types of operators.
Arithmetic Operators
Comparison (Relational) Operators
Assignment Operators
Logical Operators
Bitwise Operators
Membership Operators
Identity Operators
Arithmetic Operators
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −
Operator 
Description 
Example 
+ Addition 
Adds values on either side of the operator. 
a + b = 30 
 Subtraction 
Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand. 
a – b = 10 
* Multiplication 
Multiplies values on either side of the operator 
a * b = 200 
/ Division 
Divides left hand operand by right hand operand 
b / a = 2 
% Modulus 
Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder 
b % a = 0 
** Exponent 
Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators 
a**b =10 to the power 20 
// 
Floor Division  The division of operands where the result is the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed. But if one of the operands is negative, the result is floored, i.e., rounded away from zero (towards negative infinity): 
9//2 = 4 and 9.0//2.0 = 4.0, 11//3 = 4, 11.0//3 = 4.0 
Comparison Operators
These operators compare the values on either sides of them and decide the relation among them. They are also called Relational operators.
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −
Operator 
Description 
Example 
== 
If the values of two operands are equal, then the condition becomes true. 
(a == b) is not true. 
!= 
If values of two operands are not equal, then condition becomes true. 

> 
If the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. 
(a > b) is not true. 
< 
If the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. 
(a < b) is true. 
>= 
If the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. 
(a >= b) is not true. 
<= 
If the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. 
(a <= b) is true. 
Assignment Operators
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −
Operator 
Description 
Example 
= 
Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand 
c = a + b assigns value of a + b into c 
+= Add AND 
It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand 
c += a is equivalent to c = c + a 
= Subtract AND 
It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand 
c = a is equivalent to c = c  a 
*= Multiply AND 
It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand 
c *= a is equivalent to c = c * a 
/= Divide AND 
It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand 
c /= a is equivalent to c = c / ac /= a is equivalent to c = c / a 
%= Modulus AND 
It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand 
c %= a is equivalent to c = c % a 
**= Exponent AND 
Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand 
c **= a is equivalent to c = c ** a 
//= Floor Division 
It performs floor division on operators and assign value to the left operand 
c //= a is equivalent to c = c // a 
Bitwise Operators
Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; Now in binary format they will be as follows −
a = 0011 1100
b = 0000 1101
a&b = 0000 1100
ab = 0011 1101
a^b = 0011 0001
~a = 1100 0011
There are following Bitwise operators supported by Python language
Operator 
Description 
Example 
& Binary AND 
Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands 
(a & b) (means 0000 1100) 
 Binary OR 
It copies a bit if it exists in either operand. 
(a  b) = 61 (means 0011 1101) 
^ Binary XOR 
It copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. 
(a ^ b) = 49 (means 0011 0001) 
~ Binary Ones Complement 
It is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. 
(~a ) = 61 (means 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number. 
<< Binary Left Shift 
The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. 
a << = 240 (means 1111 0000) 
>> Binary Right Shift 
The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. 
a >> = 15 (means 0000 1111) 
Logical Operators
There are following logical operators supported by Python language. Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20 then
Used to reverse the logical state of its operand.
Membership Operators
Python’s membership operators test for membership in a sequence, such as strings, lists, or tuples. There are two membership operators as explained below
Operator 
Description 
Example 
in 
Evaluates to true if it finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise. 
x in y, here in results in a 1 if x is a member of sequence y. 
not in 
Evaluates to true if it does not finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise. 
x not in y, here not in results in a 1 if x is not a member of sequence y. 
Identity Operators
Identity operators compare the memory locations of two objects. There are two Identity operators explained below:
Operator 
Description 
Example 
is 
Evaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise. 
x is y, here is results in 1 if id(x) equals id(y). 
is not 
Evaluates to false if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and true otherwise. 
x is not y, here is not results in 1 if id(x) is not equal to id(y). 
Operators Precedence
The following table lists all operators from highest precedence to lowest.
Operator 
Description 
** 
Exponentiation (raise to the power) 
~ +  
Complement, unary plus and minus (method names for the last two are +@ and @) 
* / % // 
Multiply, divide, modulo and floor division 
+  
Addition and subtraction 
>> << 
Right and left bitwise shift 
& 
Bitwise 'AND' 
^  
Bitwise exclusive `OR' and regular `OR' 
<= < > >= 
Comparison operators 
<> == != 
Equality operators 
= %= /= //= = += *= **= 
Assignment operators 
is is not 
Identity operators 
in not in 
Membership operators 
not or and 
Logical operators 

